5G: Welcome to Future

5G fifth generation of wireless network: Explained

Technology today is growing like never before with new inventions every day in Research and development sector. The 5G is one of those promising technologies which are going to change the way mankind looks at the Network. Telecom Industries have been testing 5G Technology for a long-long time.

What is 5G?

5G is the fifth generation of wireless network technology and so all the big telecom industries are working on building out their 5G networks right now Verizon, AT&T, Sprint and Jio are all working on 5G. The main highlight of 5G is but obvious Speed if seen carefully every new Generation of a wireless network is significantly faster than the previous one. It has a higher Response time, very low latency and a much higher endurance as compared to 4G.

Tower

  • 1G: It brought us the very first cell phones.
  • 2G: Let us a text for the first time.
  • 3G: Brought us all online.
  • 4G: Speed that we enjoy today.

Frequency Spectrum

To download to a 2 Hour film it would take 

    1. 3G – 26 hours
    2. 4G – 6 minutes
    3. 5G – 3.5 seconds

How does it Work?

Electronic devices such as Mobile phones, Radios, etc work on very specific frequencies on the radio frequency spectrum typically those under 6 Gigahertz. These frequencies have now started to get more crowded. 5G is built on “Millimeter Waves” it’s a completely new section of very high-frequency spectrum upwards 30 Gigahertz up to 300 Gigahertz. This section of the frequency spectrum has never been used before for mobile devices and opening it up means more bandwidth.

5G waveform

The main drawback of this system is that the higher the frequency the lesser the range. So we would require a lot of nodes (towers) as compared to the 4G network.  

What’s new in 5G?

1. Millimetre Waves

As we discussed earlier this network runs on a completely new radio frequency which is higher than the 4G network. These waves are very close to each other which means a lot of data can be transferred easily with these waves. The only problem is that it travels well only within direct line of sight so things like trees and walls and building block will disrupt the high-frequency signal.

Comparison of Waveform
Courtesy : CNBC

Due to Rapid rise in users of 4G network these days, the problem of network congestion has increased severely. 5G, on the other hand, can handle a thousand times more traffic than today’s network. As it would be ten times faster than the 4G LTE just imagine downloading an HD movie in just under a second. 

2. Small Cell Network

The network today rely highly on the huge towers to broadcast their signals over long distances but remember high-frequency millimetre waves have a harder time travelling through obstacles if you move behind the one you lose your signal strength. Putting a lot of nodes all over the place so essentially to maximise coverage and improve technologies so that when you move behind one obstacle or sort of drive through a city you actively switch between small cell towers that you are connected to a kind of like we do with 4G towers but just much faster.

Small Cell Connection

This base stations would be much closer together than traditional towers forming a sort of relay team to transmit signal around obstacles this would especially be useful in cities as the user moved automatically switch to a new base station in better range of his device allowing him to keep his connection.

3. A Huge MIMO (Multiple Input Multiple Output)

Today’s 4G base stations have many parts for antennas that handle all cellular traffic but massive MIMO base stations can support about a hundred parts this could increase the capacity of today’s network by a factor of 22 or more. A massive MIMO comes with its Complications today’s cellular antennas broadcast information, in every direction at once and all of those crossing signals could cause serious interference.

5G tower
Courtesy : CNBC

4. Beamforming

 The biggest advantage of a 5G network is its Beamforming Technology. 4G Technology sends signals in every direction. Even when a user isn’t present there. But in case of 5G Traffic signalling system for cellular signals allow a base station to send a focused stream of data to a specific user this precision prevents interference and it’s way more efficient than means stations could handle more incoming and outgoing data streams at once.

Spectrum
Courtesy : CNBC

A massive MIMO base station receives all of these signals and keeps track of the timing and the direction of their arrival it the uses signal processing algorithm to triangulate exactly where each signal is coming from and plots the best transmission route back. Sometimes it’ll even bounce individual packets of data in different directions off to buildings or other objects to keep signals from interfering with each other the result is a coherent data stream sent only to you.

5. Applications

5G has N number of applications in the automation world. Such as Self-driving car 5G enables this type of car require a continuous stream of data the quicker that information is delivered to autonomous vehicles, the better and safer, they can run.

Tesla : Electric Vehicles

5G will provide a much more personalised web experience using a technique called “Network Slicing”. It’s a way of creating separate wireless networks on the cloud, allowing users to create their bespoke network. A surgeon can perform surgery from over a long distance. Data Heavy applications can be downloaded at dreamlike speeds. 

5G in India

The Department of Telecommunications has said it planned to auction 4G and 5G airwaves in December 2019 or early 2020 but has yet to allot spectrum for holding 5G trials. The next-generation mobile services on 5G technology are expected to become available in India for subscription in 2022, Swedish telecom gear maker Ericsson said in a report released. 

5G technology

Huwaei and ZTE are at the forefront of the development of this network. Huwaei and Bharti Airtel successfully conducted India’s first 5G network trial under a test setup at the former’s network experience centre in Manesar, Gurugram. However, due to security reasons, the Indian Government have decided to ban Huwaei from India. Airtel made a statement stating that it may look for alternatives for 5G as it no longer wishes to continue with Huawei infrastructures. Jio also has planned a joint venture with Samsung in this 5G journey. So India has a long way to go right now.

Phones Compatible with 5G 

  • Samsung Galaxy S10 

  • LG V50 ThinQ 

  • Motorola Moto Z4

  • OnePlus 7 Pro 

  • Samsung Galaxy Note 10 Plus 

  • Motorola Moto Z3

  • Samsung Galaxy Fold 

  • Coolpad Legacy 

  • TCL 10 

  •  Huawei Mate 20 X 

  •  ZTE Axon 10 Pro 

  •  Xiaomi Mi Mix 3 

  • Oppo Reno 

  • Huawei Mate X 

5G Comparison with other G's

Difference in 4G and 5G Network

Factors4G5G
Bandwidth100MHz

1000x BW pr unit area

Frequency2-8 GHz30-300GHz
Data rate100Mbps- 1Gbps1Gbps<
RangeHighless
LatencyHighlow
EndurancelessMore
AgilelessMore

Drawbacks of 5G Network

5G network does not travel as far in the real world. It can be easily interrupted by trees, buildings and other obstacles. So if you are imagining a very high speed you should be very close to one of the node. Even this is not enough weather conditions do play a very important role in this venture. If it’s raining heavily outside, the high-frequency signal will be disrupted even if you are close to the node.

Disruption by Rain 5G waves Blocked by Walls

If you are thinking that a software update on your 4G phone will turn it 5G sorry bud we don’t do that here. You need to buy a compatible 5G phone for your 5G network. A whole new infrastructure has to be set up across the city. Covering a whole city with these little nodes is gonna be incredibly expensive and probably take a very long long time like years or so.
There are only a handful of phones with proper 5G compatibility. On testing these phones the results obtained showed that the phone battery drained faster than usual. The phone got heated up more quickly even when not in use. Spending extra money on 5G phone right now is not as fruitful as it may seem. As there are several Cons than Pros.

Effect on Health

No Health organization has yet stated that 5G would be harmful to the human being. The 5G waves can’t even penetrate human body so damaging internal organs is nearly impossible. A myth that 5G is dangerous to birds and is causing their deaths is completely fake. Because no such evidence is seen for now. The deaths that occurred are all due to 3G and 4G networks.

5G health
Courtesy : CNBC

Health concerns related to radiation from cell telephone towers and cell telephones are not new. Although electromagnetic hypersensitivity is not scientifically recognized, diffuse symptoms such as headache and tiredness have been claimed to result from exposure to electromagnetic fields such as those that carry 5G and Wi-Fi. However, 5G technology presents a couple of new issues that depart from 4G technology, namely, higher microwave frequencies from 2.6 GHz to 28 GHz, compared to 700–2500 MHz typically used by 4G. Because the higher millimeter wave used in 5G does not penetrate objects easily, this requires the installation of antennas every few hundred meters, which has sparked concern among the public.

“Absence of evidence is not evidence of absence.”

Martin Rees

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Electric vehicles Technology

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